Thursday, November 21, 2019

The process of DNA fingerprinting Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The process of DNA fingerprinting - Essay Example The sides that make up the DNA are twisted around each other in a spirally way. Each turn of the spiral staircase of the DNA is made up of ten rungs. DNA strand is composed of nucleotides that consist of phosphate, deoxyribose sugar and four nitrogen bases (adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine). According to Hess and Orthmann (2012, p. 147), â€Å"the linking of the nitrogen bases results to nucleotide sequence which is distinct and different for every person, thereby determining a person’s individual characteristics.† Production of DNA fingerprint involves many diverse steps: the first step of DNA fingerprinting however begins by one obtaining a sample of DNA from materials such as blood, semen or saliva (Bevans 2014). Vaginal fluids, skin, or skeletal remains can also provide samples for DNA fingerprinting. In case of plant, hair roots are good samples. Through employing the current biochemical techniques, one can also multiply the number of DNA present by use of methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, some competent researchers have the potential to work with very small samples such as hair root. To access the DNA from the collected samples, some cells are isolated from the sample and then split open. After splitting the cells, the DNA is separated from the cellular debris. The isolated DNA is then treated endonuclease enzymes/ restriction enzymes (specialized enzymes that cut the sugar-phosphate bond of DNA) that cut the DNA at specific sites into small fragments (Reeve 2014). Due to variation of minisatellites composition of different individuals, the DNAs are cleaved at different points resulting to fragments of varying lengths. The different lengths of the DNA fragments are referred to as restriction length polymorphisms (RFLPs). The different sized of the fragments are easily observed by aid of an experiment called Gel Electrophoresis. After cleavage stage, the DNA portions are then introduced to one end of agarose gel (thin

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